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Understanding the ethereum trie

The other day I finally got around to reading the entire ethereum yellow paper and to figuring out how the modified Merkle-patricia-tree (trie) works. So let’s go through a brief but hopefully complete explanation of the trie, using examples.
A block in the ethereum blockchain consists of a header, a list of transactions, and a list of uncle blocks. Included in the header is a transaction root hash, which is used to validate the list of transactions. While transactions are sent over the wire from peer to peer as a simple list, they must be assembled into a special data structure called a trie to compute the root hash. Note that this data structure is not needed except to verify blocks (and hence of course to mine them), and can technically be discarded once a block has been verified. However, it is implied that the transaction lists are stored locally in


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