You disabled WiFi and GPS, but you still have cellular data turned on. That means that the phone is in communication with the local cell towers. Android uses cell tower geolocation to estimate your current location.
Each cell tower has a set of ID numbers that identifies them to the phones. It broadcasts its identity constantly so that phones can connect to it as they move around. Cellular tower antennas are directional, with each tower serving roughly three different areas; you can think of them as three pie-shaped wedges with the cell tower at the center of the pie. Each of those wedges is a “cell” (which is where the technology got its name.)
Each of the radios serving those cells transmits using a certain amount of power – the closer you are to the tower, the stronger the signal your phone receives, and vice versa. Your phone uses the received
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