In essence a blockchain, the concept of the blockchain constitutes of few main dimensions, few main features, that all put together become a blockchain.
The first one is content addressability: meaning that you need a way to find any type of file without it having to have an address as defined by somebody else. That is achieved through the hashing functionality, where the hash, the generated hash of the life, of the data itself is the name of the file and therefore can be found anywhere.
The second dimension is the Merkle structure: meaning this very specific data structure where you, put together hashes of these files, in hierarchical manner, and that way you can prove both the order and existence of any particular file within the root-hash of that file.
The third dimension, which goes beyond data structure, and goes into networking, today is viewed as the consensus
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