DROWN is a serious vulnerability that affects HTTPS and
other services that rely on SSL and TLS, some of the essential
cryptographic protocols for Internet security. These protocols
allow everyone on the Internet to browse the web, use email,
shop online, and send instant messages without third-parties
being able to read the communication.
DROWN allows attackers to break the encryption and read or
steal sensitive communications, including passwords, credit
card numbers, trade secrets, or financial data. Our
measurements indicate 33% of all HTTPS servers are
vulnerable to the attack.
What can the attackers gain?
Any communication between users and the server. This
typically includes, but is not limited to, usernames and
passwords, credit card numbers, emails, instant messages, and
sensitive documents. Under some common scenarios, an attacker
can also impersonate a secure website and intercept or change
the content the user sees.
Who is vulnerable?
Websites, mail servers, and other TLS-dependent services
are at risk for the DROWN attack,
and many popular sites are
affected. We used Internet-wide scanning to measure how many
sites are vulnerable:
as of Mar. 1
|HTTPS — Top one million domains
|HTTPS — All browser-trusted sites
|HTTPS — All sites
Operators of vulnerable servers need to take action. There
is nothing practical that browsers or end-users can do on
their own to protect against this attack.
Is my site vulnerable?
Modern servers and clients use the TLS encryption protocol.
However, due to misconfigurations, many servers also still
support SSLv2, a 1990s-era predecessor to TLS. This support
did not matter in practice, since no up-to-date clients
actually use SSLv2. Therefore, even though SSLv2 is known to
be badly insecure, until now, merely supporting SSLv2 was not
considered a security problem, because clients never used
DROWN shows that merely supporting SSLv2 is a threat to
modern servers and clients. It allows an attacker to decrypt
modern TLS connections between up-to-date clients and servers
by sending probes to a server that supports SSLv2 and uses the
same private key.
A server is vulnerable to DROWN if:
- It allows SSLv2 connections. This is surprisingly
common, due to misconfiguration and inappropriate default
settings. Our measurements show that 17% of HTTPS servers
still allow SSLv2 connections.
- Its private key is used on any other server that
allows SSLv2 connections, even for another protocol. Many
companies reuse the same certificate and key on their web
and email servers, for instance. In this case, if the email
server supports SSLv2 and the web server does not, an
attacker can take advantage of the email server to break TLS
connections to the web server. When taking key reuse into
account, an additional 16% of HTTPS servers are
vulnerable, putting 33% of HTTPS servers at risk.
This tool uses data collected during February 2016.
It does not immediately update as servers patch.
How do I protect my server?
To protect against DROWN, server
operators need to ensure that their private keys are not used
anywhere with server software that allows SSLv2 connections.
This includes web servers, SMTP servers, IMAP and POP servers,
and any other software that supports SSL/TLS. You can use the
form above to check whether your server appears to be exposed
to the attack.
Disabling SSLv2 can be complicated and depends on the
specific server software. We provide instructions here for
several common products:
OpenSSL: OpenSSL is a cryptographic library used in
many server products. For users of OpenSSL, the easiest and
recommended solution is to upgrade to a recent OpenSSL
version. OpenSSL 1.0.2 users should upgrade to 1.0.2g.
OpenSSL 1.0.1 users should upgrade to 1.0.1s. Users of older
OpenSSL versions should upgrade to either one of these
versions. More details can be found
OpenSSL blog post.
Microsoft IIS (Windows Server): IIS versions 7.0 and
above should have SSLv2 disabled by default. (A small number
of users may have enabled SSLv2 manually and will need to take
steps to disable it.) We still recommend checking whether your
private key is exposed elsewhere, using the form above. IIS
versions below 7.0 are no longer supported by Microsoft and
should be upgraded to supported versions.
Network Security Services (NSS): NSS is a common
cryptographic library built into many server products. NSS
versions 3.13 (released back in 2012) and above should have SSLv2 disabled by
default. (A small number of users may have enabled SSLv2
manually and will need to take steps to disable it.) Users of
older versions should upgrade to a more recent version. We
still recommend checking whether your private key is exposed
elsewhere, using the form above.
Other affected software and operating systems:
Browsers and other clients: There is nothing
practical that web browsers or other client software can do to
prevent DROWN. Only server operators are able to take action
to protect against the attack.
What does DROWN stand for?
DROWN stands for Decrypting RSA with Obsolete and Weakened eNcryption.
What are the technical details?
For the complete details, see
our full technical
paper. We also provide a brief technical summary
In technical terms, DROWN is a new form of cross-protocol
padding oracle attack. It allows an attacker to decrypt
intercepted TLS connections by making specially crafted
connections to an SSLv2 server that uses the same private
The attacker begins by observing roughly several hundred connections
between the victim client and server. The attacker will
eventually be able to decrypt one of them. Collecting this
many connections might involve intercepting traffic for a long
time or tricking the user into visiting a website that quickly
makes many connections to another site in the background. The
connections can use any version of the SSL/TLS protocol,
including TLS 1.2, so long as they employ the commonly used
RSA key exchange method. In an RSA key exchange, the client
picks a random session key and sends it to the server,
encrypted using RSA and the server’s public key.
Next, the attacker repeatedly connects to the SSLv2 server
and sends specially crafted handshake messages with
modifications to the RSA ciphertext from the victim’s
connections. (This is possible because
RSA is malleable.) The way the server responds to
each of these probes depends on whether the modified
ciphertext decrypts to a plaintext message with the right
form. Since the attacker doesn’t know the server’s private
key, he doesn’t know exactly what the plaintext will be, but
the way that the server responds ends up leaking information
to the attacker about the secret keys used for the victim’s
The way this information is leaked can take two forms:
In the most general variant of DROWN, the attack
exploits a fundamental weakness in the SSLv2 protocol that
relates to export-grade cryptography that was introduced to
comply with 1990s-era U.S. government restrictions. The
attacker’s probes use a cipher that involves only 40 bits of
RSA encrypted secret key material. The attacker can tell
whether his modified ciphertext was validly formed by
comparing the server’s response to all 240
possibilities—a moderately large computation, but one
that we show can be inexpensively performed with
GPUs. Overall, roughly 40,000 probe connections and
250 computation is needed to decrypt one out of 900 TLS
connections from the victim.
Running the computations for the full attack
on Amazon EC2 costs about $440.
A majority of servers vulnerable to DROWN are also
affected by an OpenSSL bug that results in a significantly
cheaper version of the attack. In this special case, the
attacker can craft his probe messages so that he immediately
learns whether they had the right form without any large
computation. In this case, the attacker needs about 17,000
probe connections in total to obtain the key for one out of 260 TLS
connections from the victim,
and the computation takes under a minute on a
This special case stems from the complexity introduced by
export-grade cryptography. The OpenSSL bug allows the
attacker to mix export-grade and non-export-grade crypto
parameters in order to exploit unexpected paths in the
This form of the attack is fast enough to allow an online
man-in-the-middle (MitM) style of attack, where the attacker
can impersonate a vulnerable server to the victim client.
Among other advantages, such an attacker can force the
client and server to use RSA key exchange (and can then
decrypt the connection) even if they would normally prefer a
different cipher. This lets the attacker target and break
connections between modern browsers and servers that prefer
perfect-forward-secret key exchange methods, such as DHE and
We were able to execute this form of the attack in under
a minute on a single PC.
How can I contact the DROWN research team?
DROWN was developed by researchers at Tel Aviv University,
Münster University of Applied Sciences, Ruhr University
Bochum, the University of Pennsylvania, the Hashcat project,
the University of Michigan, Two Sigma, Google, and the OpenSSL
J. Alex Halderman,
Christof Paar, and
The team can be contacted at email@example.com.
Is there a CVE for DROWN?
Yes. The DROWN attack itself was
DROWN is made worse by two additional OpenSSL
implementation vulnerabilities. CVE-2015-3197,
which affected OpenSSL versions prior to 1.0.2f and 1.0.1r,
allows a DROWN attacker to connect to the server with disabled
SSLv2 ciphersuites, provided that support for SSLv2 itself is
enabled. CVE-2016-0703, which affected OpenSSL
versions prior to 1.0.2a, 1.0.1m, 1.0.0r, and 0.9.8zf, greatly
reduces the time and cost of carrying out the DROWN
How easy is it to carry out the attack? Is it practical?
Yes. We’ve been able to execute the attack against OpenSSL
versions that are vulnerable to CVE-2016-0703 in under a
minute using a single PC. Even for servers that don’t
have these particular bugs, the general variant of the attack,
which works against any SSLv2 server, can be conducted in
under 8 hours at a total cost of $440.
What popular sites are affected?
Here are some examples.
Is the vulnerability currently being exploited by attackers?
We have no reason to believe that DROWN has been exploited
in the wild prior to this disclosure. Since the details of the
vulnerability are now public, attackers may start exploiting
it at any time, and we recommend taking the
countermeasures explained above as
soon as possible.
SSLv2 has been known to be insecure for 20 years. What’s the big deal?
Indeed, SSLv2 has long known to be weak when clients and
servers use it to communicate, and so nearly every modern
client uses a more recent protocol. DROWN shows
that merely allowing SSLv2, even if no legitimate
clients ever use it, is a threat to modern servers and
clients. It allows an attacker to decrypt modern TLS
connections between up-to-date clients and servers by
sending probes to any server that supports SSLv2 using the
same private key.
Does DROWN allow an attacker to steal the server’s private key?
No. DROWN allows an attacker to decrypt one connection at a
time. The attacker does not learn the server’s private
Can DROWN be also used to perform MitM attacks?
Yes. Some variants of the attack can be used to perform
MitM attacks against TLS or QUIC. More details can be found in
sections 5.3 and 7 of
the technical paper.
Does Perfect Forward Secrecy (PFS) prevent DROWN?
Surprisingly, no. The active MitM form of the attack allows an
attacker to target servers and clients that prefer non-RSA key
exchange methods. See sections 5.3 and 7 of
the technical paper.
Do I need to get a new certificate for my server?
Probably not. As the attacker does not learn the server’s
private key, there’s no need to obtain new certificates. The
only action required is disabling SSLv2 as per
the countermeasures explained
above. If you cannot confidently determine that SSLv2 is
disabled on every device or server that uses your server’s
private key, you should generate a fresh key for the server
and obtain a new certificate.
Do I need to update my browser?
No. There is nothing practical that web browsers or other
client software can do to prevent DROWN. Only server operators
are able to take action to protect against the attack.
I have a firewall that allows filtering of SSLv2
traffic. Should I filter that traffic?
Yes, that’s a reasonable precaution, although it will also
prevent our scanners from being able to
help you identify vulnerable servers. You might consider first
running the test suite to identify vulnerable servers and only
then filtering SSLv2 traffic. You should also use
the countermeasures explained
Can I detect if someone has exploited this against me?
Possibly. If you run a server and can be certain no one
made a large number of SSLv2 connections to any of your
servers (for example, by examining IDS or server logs), then
you weren’t attacked. Your logs may contain a small number of
SSLv2 connections from the Internet-wide scans that we
conducted over the past few months to measure the prevalence
of the vulnerability.
My HTTPS server is certified PCI compliant, so I already
know I have SSLv2 disabled. Do I still need to take
Yes. Even if you’re certain that you have SSLv2 disabled on
your HTTPS server, you may be reusing your private key on
another server (such as an email server) that does support
SSLv2. We recommend manually inspecting all servers that use
your private key. In addition, you can check whether your
private key is exposed elsewhere on the Internet using the form
I have an old embedded device that doesn’t allow me to
disable SSLv2, and I have to keep it running. What do I
Security against DROWN is not possible for that embedded
device. If you must keep that device running, make sure it
uses a different RSA private key than any other servers and
devices. You can also limit the scope of attack by using a
firewall to filter SSLv2 traffic from outside your
organization. In all circumstances, maintaining support for
SSLv2 should be a last resort.
SSLLabs says I have SSLv2 disabled. That means I’m safe,
Unfortunately, no. Although SSLLabs
provides an invaluable suite of security tests, right now it
only checks whether your HTTPS server directly allows SSLv2.
You’re just as much at risk if your site’s certificate or key
is used anywhere else on a server that does support SSLv2.
Common examples include SMTP, IMAP, and POP mail servers, and
secondary HTTPS servers used for specific web
applications. SSLLabs doesn’t yet check for this kind of
cross-server exposure to DROWN, but our DROWN
check tool attempts to.
I just disabled SSLv2, but your tool says I’m still vulnerable!
Our tool is based on correlated scan data collected during February,
2016. Due to the high quantity of data, it does not automatically
update as servers disable SSLv2.
You can also download and run our
This utility only detects SSLv2
support on a single port. It cannot detect the common
scenario, explained above, where a web server that doesn’t
support SSLv2 is vulnerable because it shares its public key with
an email server that does. We strongly recommend using the online
scanner above, when at all possible.
Why does your tool say I support SSLv2, but nmap says I don’t?
Due to CVE-2015-3197, OpenSSL may still accept
SSLv2 connections even if all SSLv2 ciphers are disabled.
Are you planning to release the code for your
implementation of the attack?
Not in the immediate future. There are still too many
servers vulnerable to the attack.
What factors contributed to DROWN?
For the third time in a year, a major Internet security
vulnerability has resulted from
the way cryptography
by U.S. government policies that
restricted exporting strong cryptography until the late
1990s. Although these restrictions, evidently designed to make
it easier for NSA to decrypt the communication of people
abroad, were relaxed nearly 20 years ago, the weakened
cryptography remains in the protocol specifications and
continues to be supported by many servers today, adding
complexity—and the potential for catastrophic
failure—to some of the Internet’s most important
The U.S. government deliberately weakened three kinds of
cryptographic primitives: RSA encryption, Diffie-Hellman key
exchange, and symmetric
exploited export-grade RSA,
and Logjam exploited
export-grade Diffie-Hellman. Now, DROWN exploits export-grade
symmetric ciphers, demonstrating that all three kinds of
deliberately weakened crypto have come to put the security of
the Internet at risk decades later.
Today, some policy makers are calling for new
restrictions on the design of cryptography
in order to
prevent law enforcement from “going dark.” While
we believe that advocates of such backdoors are acting out of
a good faith desire to protect their countries, history’s
technical lesson is clear: weakening cryptography carries
enormous risk to all of our security.
Where else can I learn about DROWN?